Preparing for the future of work

Recently I had a conversation with a girlfriend, who is a very successful entrepreneur who have created the most beautiful bio-degradable eco friendly. She told she is frustrated because she no longer knows who she is. She used to a well-estabalished sculturor and artist, now she is called a business woman and entrepreur. Although becoming very successful in this business, she is feeling unrestful. She has lost her identity.

This reminds me another story: a famous architect was asked what type of architect he is, he answered: “ I am an artist.”

On my 40th birthday a few months ago ago, I asked myself the same question: “what am I?” “What do I want people to call me on my tombstone when I rest in peace?”

The world is changing rapidly and this has transformed the way the global workforce is sourced, organised and managed. Knowledge, trade, technology, capital and goods are more globally connected than ever before. As The Institute of the Future identifies: as the medical advances allow us to live longer, the nature of work and learning will change as well; we will work longer, change jobs more often, requiring lifelong learning, unlearning and relearning. For us, as the changes become the norm of our life and will continue to be accelerated in the future, how do we operate in this new environment? What asset do we need to build to be competitive in the global market? And how do we align our mobility, passion and purpose with the creativity and skills we acquire along the way?

What does the work mean in the future?

According to Aaron Hurst, we are moving from the Information Economy to the Purpose Economy. He states that this is a natural evolution, which is taking us from the first levels of human organization, the hoe-and-plow Agricultural Economy, through the smokestacks of the Industrial Economy, to the data farms of the Information Economy, and now to the human-centric Purpose Economy. Each of these economies have been built on top of the proceeding and represent evolutions more than revolutions.

With the old industrial age, our happiness is assumed to be tightly bound with the growth of our GDP, which means, we could simply focus on the work of money making, and happiness would follow naturally. However, Teresa Amabile and Steven Kramer brought a surprising research through intenstive analysis of nearly 12,000 diary entries provided by 238 employees in 7 companies through their book “The Progress Principle”, they explained “of all the events that engage people at work, the single most important – by far – is simply making progress at meaningful work.” It is no longer the money, the incentives, the status or the title which makes us happiest, “our desire to have more is replaced by the desire to be more.” (Metaskills)

The founding father of Permaculture – Masanobu Fukuoka once said in his book The One-Straw Revolution: “ I do not particularly like the word ‘work.’ Human beings are the only animals who have to work, and I think that is the most ridiculous thing in the world. Other animals make their livings by living, but people work like crazy, thinking that they have to in order to stay alive. The bigger the job, the greater the challenge, the more wonderful they think it is. It would be good to give up that way of thinking and live an easy, comfortable life with plenty of free time… a life of such simplicity would be possible if one worked to produce directly his daily necessities. In such a life, work is not work as people generally think of it, but simply doing what needs to be done.”

Masanobu Fukuoka, The One-Straw Revolution

So, if in the purpose economy, the work is based on our desire to be more rather than to have more, and doing what needs to be done. How do we prepare ourselves for this?

In order to answer these questions, I have done quite a lot of research, deep reflections and even began to do daily meditation. I was hoping some of the old and new wisdom could guide me. For the sake of simplicity, I have summarized my research findings into 4R. And it turns out understanding yourself is the start of everything.

1, Recognize: “ Identify the meaningfulness that is related to you and connect with the source of your own happiness. “

We are all familiar with the pyramid called the “Hierarchy of Needs” by psychologist Abraham Maslow. (yet someone might argue we might have even basic’er need than food and shelf). The term self-actualization is related to what the joyful fulfillment of one’s potential, or the pursuit of higher-order goals. In the industrial age, our human creativity has been put into the drawer in order to pursue efficiency and productivity. The Industrial age has managed to “take most of the joy out of work, the humanity out of business, and the beauty out of everyday life”. Yet it also “built the self-esteem layer of the pyramid, to which we can now add the soul-enriching pinnacle of self-actualization.”

So ask yourself: what makes you alive? Not “what does the world need?” Because what makes you alive is what the world needs!

2, Reflect: Are you a creative? What is your unique value to the world?

In the MetaSkills by Maty Neumeier “We have an unfounded fear that machines will someday start thinking like humans. What we should really fear is that humans have already started thinking like machines.”

I have been asked many time during my talk “what happens if the robot steals of our job?” I usually ask back, “What happens the Chinese steal our jobs?” This was a question being raised up often years ago in the western world, look what happens now? Western world has given up their massive manufacturing work and moved up to a higher level of work which involves knowledge, skills and creativity, and believe or not? Chinese is going to do the same. (I am also aware of the fact that the manufacturing is now coming back to the west with a different kind of notion and format).

“Employers in the future don’t want employee to be robots. They have robots. What they want are people who think for themselves, use their imagination, communicate well and can work in teams, and who can adapt to continuous change.”

Creative work are way beyond the narrow definition of “creative industry”, it appears in all kind of sectors and all kind of business, such us scientific discoveries, technological breakthroughs, new business ideas, product invention, even organizational leadership.

Creative workers by definition is problem solvers, they solve significant problems or satisfy significant needs in a Imaginative, non-routine, experimental and autonomous way. It can be imitated and followed but the core can never be copied. Since this work is fairly original, maybe even unique, the cost is high and so is the value.

There is a good book to help you to start with this reflection, called “Business Model U” by Tim Clark.

Basically it applies the Business Model Canvas on individuals to define their personal business model. In fact, it provides more tools than just Business Model Canvas to help you reflect on who you are, your key personality and creativity. Such as What problem am I trying to solve for this world? Who are people I would like to help? What kind of value do I provide to solve the problem for the people I help?

In fact, dream jobs are more often created than found, so they are rarely attainable through conventional searches. Creating one requires strong self-knowledge.

3, Reframe: Turn every crisis into an opportunity to learn, unlearn and relearn toward your goal.

Richard Brandson once said “If somebody offers you an amazing opportunity but you are not sure you can do it, say yes – then learn how to do it later!” I think the most important thinking pattern for the future of work is “design thinking”.

For me, the essence of design thinking comparing to business thinking is that “we embrace every problem and challenge with the gift of not knowing.” Not knowing used to be something to be ashamed of or even a taboo, but it has turned to become the most normal thing in our workplace in the future while the knowledge is being updated with the speed of light. While the problems we are facing are becoming super complex, not knowing allows us to sense the world with different mindsets and deep empathy, it enables us to work through a problem without being limited to an assumed answer. We don’t take a “no” for “no”, we ask “Why not?” and “What if?” to envision the new possibility and a better future. Once we grasp something, we make it happen in baby steps, learn from the mistakes along the way.

This is the process of business innovation, it is also a process of going from “who we are” to “who we could be”.

4, Respond: Replace the expectation with plan and actions with a choice consistent with your goals and your personal values.

In my case, I know that I am a tireless learner who are also aspired to help others to learn and make changes to their life and the world. I am doing a lot of ad-hoc in-company innovation training as my horizon one, all my work as a curator of CAMP and mentor of all kinds of startup incubators are my horizon two work, both are preparing me to learn the skills and build my network and personal eco-system toward my vision – being a good educator, which is my horizon three. That is how I am calling myself now and in the future.

I guess all what I am trying to say is, “if we assume the change is the norm of our life, the best thing we could do is to be grounded like a tree, build our inner clarity and confidence, open up to anything unknown, tune in, and learn to dance in the rain … “

I would like to end this with a quote of Bruce Lee the Kungfu master:

“Not being tense but ready.

Not thinking but dreaming.

Not being set but flexible.

Liberation from the uneasy sense of confinement.

It is being wholly and quietly alive, aware and alert, ready for whatever may come.”

Bruce Lee, Tao of Jeet Kune Do

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What the heck is Coworking?


Yesterday I had an interesting debate with Dutch Design Workspace(@ddwschina) on twitter about the definition of Coworking in respond to my speech at 3rdspaceconference about “Coworking in China”. In this speech, I referred to the term of Coworking as the narrow sense of “Coworking Space”, which was used firstly in 2005 by Brad Neuberg to describe a physical space which he firstly called ‘9 to 5 group’, and soon became the growing worldwide movement of independent café-like community spaces for freelance professionals and early stage startups. A Coworking Space is normally built organically upon an existing coworking communities and operated under the values of “Collaboration, Openness, Community, Accessibility, and Sustainability” and share information and knowledge freely among one another and numerous web or event based platforms have been created to serve that purpose. At Xindanwei, we have been actively contributing our knowledge and experience about coworking through online platforms, conferences, events, and lately introduced Coworking Manual apps.

Yet by means the term “coworking” stands for something much broader, it means a new way of working, which is co-operative, open, collaboration & network based rather than singular, isolated and individual based.  It was firstly coined by American game designer and fun theorist Bernie DeKoven in 1999 as “computer-supported collaborative work”, however, for people who works in the creative disciplines, collaborative way of working is an essential way to tackle complex problems emerged in our rapid-changing world and generate novel ideas and effective solutions, because creative ideas and solutions are often the result of combined efforts of a team or group of creative minds, and often arise in collaboration when people share their ideas and for example build links and find analogies.

One of my favorite Dutch Architects Ben van Berkel has been researching extensively on the network practice of architect and collaborative process which he named as”liquid architect“. He pointed out:

“Network practice allows architects to be involved with design, technique, detail and execution by building close working relationships with other experts…The empowering quality of the new co-operative process derives from the increased transferability of knowledge. Strategic forms of co-operation may include structural engineers, industrial, new media and graphic designers, cost calculators, management, consultants, process specialists, stylists and photographers. Made possible by the use of new technology, relevant knowledge stored inside all of these disciplines becomes available due to connectedness. As an expert on everyday public information, the policy of the architect is not to improve society by providing the best understanding of it, but simply to collect information that is potentially structuring, to co-ordinate it, transform it, and to offer a centralising vision on the basis of that information.”(The new concept of the architect, UN studio)

Another example would be the in-house projects established by one of the largest advertising agencies Wieden+Kennedy in their different locations worldwide to attract and engage with multidisciplinary creatives “at the forefront of technology, arts and commerce” and to adapt themselves “in a dynamic world”.

In fact, in a world of widely distributed knowledge, most of the companies and organizations cannot afford to rely entirely on their own internal talents and resources to stay innovative and competitive, more and more open innovation models such as user innovation, participatory design, crowdsourcing and know-how trading. Coworking will continue to act as the stimuli and catalyst of knowledge sharing, serendipity and accumulation, as well as the vehicle of co-creation and co-development. Our next challenge would be: how do we integrate these random creativity and novel idea’s generated by group dynamic and interactivity with the existing business model and come up with  abundance innovation outcomes? I am here to learn.

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From Self Reflection to Self Mastery (my THNK experience – 2)

From the moment our THNK mentor announced that we needed to pair up three in a group to conduct peer-coaching through out the program, I knew I would have a hard time to find someone to coach me. And it happened exactly as I expected. For a moment I was surrounded by shame, fear and disappointment and couldn’t help to express them instantly. A few minutes later I was surprisingly relieved about this sudden emotional downturn as I realized I was no longer controlling these vulnerabilities as described in the TEDtalk by Brene Brown, I accepted their existence, and I felt safe to expose them to my THNK peers, and enjoyed being imperfect as the way it was.

This is a painful but extremely inspiring personal journey I have been going through THNK – from self reflection to self mastery. Self reflection is built upon the awareness through examining our body gesture and movement by practicing standing, walking and waving together; it is built upon the ability to recognize your inner voices, a practice we have done with Eric Fox through the Passion and Purpose Dialogue; it is also built upon the open, honest and whole-hearted learning environment where everyone has opened up their true selves and is ready to build connection with one another and celebrate mistakes.

Living in a chaotic city like shanghai, it is hard to keep standing still while everyone around is moving like craze. Yet, very often, being still is an extremely powerful status and approach to cope with chaos: being still  means we treat ourselves fairly and with compassion, accept our own weakness, conflicts among our own different personalities and the challenges we are facing to stay calm and burden-free; being still means receiving, listening, absorbing rather than giving, creating noise and pushing, it charges us before we take any movement and avoid being over stretched or even get hurt by exhaustion; being still will help us to sense where the direction of different forces flow and borrow these energy to optimize the outcomes; most importantly, being still will help to have a clearer view about the environment around us and empower people around us with trust, courage and honesty.

(to be continued)ImageImage

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“Sometimes you have to travel far to find home” (My Thnk Experience – 1)

When I stood with a group of 30 “creative leaders” in circle to practice Qi Gong  in the westerpark of Amsterdam with my boots half soaked in the morning dew, I was both entertained and amazed: Am I just traveling half around the globe to learn Chinese Qi Gong  which seems comprising no more than standing and waving like a tree, holding an invisible balloon or water melon, and walking backward like all the old couples in my neighborhood parks?

This is the daily “body and mind” early morning exercises of THNK – the Amsterdam school of Creative Leaderships, a program I was invited to attend as the founding participant and help to re-shape: “We build our airplane as we fly it” as the faculty staff repeated several times modestly during the entire week. And I love every bit of it!

Let’s start with the most scary part of it: “Everyone walk around in the room naked or half naked holding a mirror reflecting one another.” Of course I don’t mean the real nudity as you see in the nude beach ( that would be good, actually), this is the self reflection and peer reflection process everyone must go through to establish the real mind connection, trust and honesty. We started with the wadlopen in the wetsuit feel like hi jacket, a hiking tour of 4.5 hours in the mud of north sea. I mentally and physically rejected this exercise as I have asthma and I have done it 10 years ago, so I decided to skip it within 200 meters and went with water-taxi and reached the destination Ameland in 15 minutes.

Followed by the story-telling session where you must tell three life-changing personal stories to your peers, life story line drawing(with X line as time and Y line as your self-definition), 30/30 exposing yourself to the world(30 seconds staring at everyone in the eyes plus 30 seconds making speech about the spontaneous feeling on the spot), we started to build a 3D picture about everyone in the room and enormous curiosity among one another. I found myself extremely fascinated by the story telling session, it is such an interesting and effective way of opening up yourself to be emotionally tied. I don’t even remember what I have told my peers, the only thing stroke me was that when people told stories to me, I had no difficulties at all to come up with more similar experience stories to build upon others to be engaged and integrate everyone’s stories as part of my own ones. I decided to do this on regular basis with people in my work and my life.

The 30/30 part was a tricky one. Imagine yourself stand in a center of 30 something half strangers staring at you, and making notes about your appearance and quick impression, some people reacted in a very radical way, some almost ended into sweat and tears. I was told by others my appearance was indeed the unforgettable as I left the center stage and walked to everyone and confronted them with a smiling gaze and closed fist: powerful, daring, different but threatening, unintentionally, this was the first image I have created for myself among others and I have spent at least 60 hours of that week trying to play the opposite to see how it went.. (To be continued)ImageImage

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Encounter Four Social Entrepreneurs 与四位社会企业家相遇

There are different reasons for different people to attend Skoll World Forum, for me, the reason is simple, I wanted to meet people who do amazing things and get inspired by them. This inspiration will empower me to carry on the difficult job I chose for myself as a social entrepreneur. It worked, when I walked out of the conference venue, I was driven by so much compassion and love, I almost wanted to hug everyone on the street.  – SKOLL World forum has been a spa to my mind and consciousness.


I have met many really interesting people in the past SKOLL forum and on my way back via London, but only with very few of them I have had chance to strike some really sound conversations.  In order to frame their profile more precisely for my readers, I have followed up with a simple formatted interview with them by email(got inspired by the video interview approach by Social Edge).


1, Who are you and what do you do?
2, What make you most passionate about?
3, What are your key messages and advices to other social entrepreneurs in the world?
4, what are the project you are working on in China? (optional)

Here goes:

Patrick Meier: 帕得里克. 梅尔

1. I’m a scholar-practitioner; I work for an African non-profit technology company called Ushahidi, which means “witness” in Swahili. We design free and open source platforms for live, collaborative mapping. We believe in democratizing map-making to give more people voices and we believe that live maps are more powerful than static maps. My role at Ushahidi is to interface between the company and the humanitarian, human rights, development, grassroots and activist communities to catalyze partnerships and live maps using the Ushahidi platform.


2. I’m passionate about using technology to change the balance of power in favor of individual freedom, self-determination and self-sufficiency vis-a-vis institutions, organizations, companies and governments. I believe technology can create social capital, strong and weak ties, which facilitates collective action and political, economic social change. I’m particularly passionate about using technology to empower marginalized communities and give voice to the voiceless.


3. My first piece of advice to other social entrepreneurs is first to focus on people, then process and then technology, in that order. We need to make sure that all our efforts are people-centered and hence participatory and sustainable, from design stage to implementation stage. The first step to people-centered projects is to listen. My second piece of advice is not to be afraid to burn bridges if this means standing up for your own principles and what you think is right. My third piece of advice is to always admit when you’re wrong and learn from your mistakes.

我对社会企业家的第一个忠告是:首先要以人为中心,其次才是过程和技术,这才是正确得先后顺序。我们必须保证我们所有的努力从设计阶段到实践阶段都是以人为本,是可以参与的,可持续的。以人为本的第一步就是倾听。我的第二个忠告是如果你坚信你的原则和判断,就别怕 “切断后路”;我的第三个忠告是,要勇于承认错误,并从错误中吸取教训。

4. The project in China is focused on giving residents in Beijing a greater say on their public transportation infrastructure. The idea is to crowdsource feedback on how to improve public transportation and to map these results in order to inform policy change on this topic.


Sharon Chang 莎朗. 张

1. I am trained as a designer and architect, but ended up with a career in brand strategy, media and entertainment. In 2010 I began devoting full-time attention to building a social venture called Yoxi, with the mission to discover rockstars in social innovation to inspire mainstream action. Having worked across design, technology, marketing and entertainment, and being very active in philanthropic work, I discovered major gaps in all of these practices and have come to realize that I can use my experience to connect seemingly unrelated dots and make changing the world be “play” rather than “work” for everyone.


2. This may sound like an overly simple and obvious thing, but i am most passionate about teaching people how to enjoy life while having a positive impact on others, as self-fulfilment leads to compassion and generosity.  I love possibilities and hate negativity.  I get excited about being able to inspire people to believe in themselves, think big and do amazing things while having fun. I think if everyone can be a little more curious, playful, fearless and open-minded, then the world would be a better place. This notion of having fun in life also leads me to be super passionate about a few other things: i am addicted to travel, I love great food, i appreciate fine craftsmanship and beautiful designs, and i am a big animal-lover.

也许我热爱的东西看似过份简单: 我非常喜欢教给别人如何享受生活,同时用自己积极乐观的态度去影响他人,因为奋发努力的人往往富有同情心并慷慨大度。我热爱积极上进,讨厌消极堕落。如果能够让他人收到启发并因此而相信自己,建立崇高的理想,开始从事伟大的事业并从中享受快乐,我会感到兴奋。我想如果每个人都可以多一点好奇心,多一点乐趣,多一点无畏,多一点开放的心态,这个世界将会更加美好。为了让生活充满更多的乐趣,我热衷于旅游,美食,我崇拜高超的手工艺及美丽的设计,同时我还是个爱动物的人。

3. Be fearless and show up everyday to pursue your dream. It really is as simple as showing up, doing everything you can do, and continue to believe in new possibilities. Success and failure are both transient, don’t let success blind your vision or failure destroy your confidence. Of course everything feels extremely challenging – If it were easy then someone would have done it already. Also, remind yourself to think differently all the time. Have a dialogue with your ideas,  give them room to evolve, don’t get stuck on one version and let it block your creativity. Stay connected to people, be open to share and collaborate. Most importantly, be optimistic: know that your effort is a stream that flows into the larger river of positive change – anything is possible.


Telle Whitney 泰勒. 惠特尼

1,  I am the CEO of the Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology (ABI).   ABI is a non-profit that works with industry and academia to recruit, retain and advance technical women, and we have recently embarked on an effort to create a global movement of individuals and organization to change the culture of technology for technical women.  Our programs include the well known conference the Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing, as well as a number of important awards and scholarships.  In 2009, for the first time, we offered the Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing in Bangalore, India.  We plan to continue our offerings worldwide. What makes ABI unique is its focus not only on the community of technical women, but on impacting the culture of technology for technical women.


2,  The wonderful part of my job is to see the impact we have on people’s lives, especially young women. For example, I was recently talking to a young woman who is debating between graduate school and a job in industry.  She had applied to graduate school last year, but was not able to find the right position.  This year she has two offers for graduate school fellowships, and an offer to work in industry. All of the choices came from people she met at the Grace Hopper Conference.   What was most rewarding to me was coaching her to understand what really matters to her.  She has decided to go to Graduate school, and I am very excited.  Our programs impact the lives of thousands of women, especially at critical decision points in their lives.


3,   My advice would be:

  • Be true to your passion, that more than any other factor will carry you through to success
  • Develop a business plan and a business model, understanding what your customers want and need, and how you can uniquely provide a product
  • Find great people, and hire them.  They more than anything else will help you succeed.
  • Be confident in your own abilities, especially through the difficult times.
  • Seek advice from many especially those with different perspectives, and listen

3,- 相信你的激情,你的激情是支持你走向成功最重要的因素。





Anna Maybank 安娜. 梅班克

1, I’m co-founder and director of Social Innovation Camp, a launchpad and accelerator for technology-based social ventures. We match up software developers, designers and people who understand a social problem to help build web and mobile-based solutions to social challenges.


2, Human creativity and how you unlock it.


3. For anyone trying to create something new, one of the most important skills you can learn is to balance having a tough skin and being persistent in the face of being told ‘no’ a lot, with the ability to change what you’re doing and listen to constructive criticism. That combination of single-minded vision and the self-awareness to change direction when you recognise you’re wrong is tough to maintain, but so important.




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Maximize the Full Potential of Being a Social Business in China

To be quite honest, I wasn’t very familiar with the term “ Social Entrepreneur” when I was invited last year by the Skoll World Forum to speak about it. Still today, when I ask many social entrepreneurs in China about their entrepreneurship, they have no idea what I am talking about.  As a matter of fact, the change-makers in my surroundings who are in the stage of forming or operating socially responsible businesses, do not position themselves in a certain high moral position and take external support for granted.


They are, just like any other entrepreneurs, going through all the same phases all the startups have to go through.  Learn about the business environment, build the capacity of the organization, talk to the government, talk to the investors, talk to everyone who is able bring resources to the organization. Figure out the product or the service, the price, the promotion and find market places to sell the product or service, and figure out their unique selling points compared to the (very often commercial) competitors.


It is a perfect mentality to consider social business to be not so different from non-social business and apply professionalism in strategic planning and execution, however, there are some really powerful things about social business that these entrepreneurs tend to ignore or are not aware of, which are also something important I want to learn and take back home from Skoll World Forum.


1 – The power of the followers and supporters. Who are the better marketers than the people who love and admire your ideals and actions! Not everyone can be a leader or initiative taker, but definitely everyone can be a follower or supporter to other’s good initiatives. The Internet allows everyone to become a follower or supporter by a few simple clicks.


2 – The power of peer-to-peer supports among other social business, leads to accelerated serenity and innovation. Social entrepreneurs are mostly likeminded people: we are small and vulnerable but with big hearts, and we are dying to meet people like us.  Since everyone comes from different backgrounds and disciplines, we are able to learn about things we don’t know to get inspired, exchange our resources to help each other and even collaborate.


3 – Media exposure.  In China, the press just loves social entrepreneurs and new types of businesses! Since our establishment two years ago, we receive calls and emails from journalists and editors every week!  We are all over the place: CNN, Global Times, Oriental Morning Daily, Southern China Daily, Urban Pictorial, Vision.  And the interesting thing is, different press has elaborated our stories from different angels, which gives a lot of inspiration in positioning ourselves to different markets.


4 – Free resources from other social-minded organizations and businesses. As a matter of fact, it is not only journalists who will come to find you. In our case, businesses regardless of their sizes, event organizers, investors, museums, PR companies, real estate developers all find our business interesting and valuable. They have their specific needs in mind, for instance, attracting customers, bringing added-value to their service, creating media exposure, and in return, they will give us their resource for free.


How did we do it?


1 – Crowd sourcing, crowd funding, crowd wisdom, you name it! Explore the full potential of social media! Simple steps would be establishing fans/support community and groups on social media platforms, starting to write a blog or micro-blog to inform and interact with the community, find ways to mobilize talents in the community and reward them!


2 – Find and meet other social entrepreneurs.   Set up and attend regular lunch or network events to stay in touch with all the social entrepreneur peers in town.


3 – Talk loud, spread the “Social Message” everywhere! Speak at as many public events as possible, organize our own free or paid events to tell everyone about us, continuously.  Make a big deal about every single media exposure and let everyone see it, very often people could understand your business better through the interpretation of others, especially journalists.


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刚刚在上海飞往伦敦的航班上看了一部根据Kazuo Ishiguro 同名小说改编的英国电影:Never let me go。看到电影结尾的时候我的五脏六腑全部都揪在一起,一直等到演职员表走到最后,才绝望地发现导演狠心地没有留下任何后话,那种伤感,绝望,难受和恐惧几乎使我呕吐。
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